Assessment Alternatives in Developing L2 Listening Ability: Assessment FOR, OF, AS Learning or Integration? (Assessment x̄ Approach)

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 PhD Candidate, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University- South Tehran Branch, (Kish Int'l Campus), Tehran, Iran;

2 English Language Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Imam Ali University, Tehran, Iran

3 English Language Department, Faculty of Persian Literature Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University- South Tehran Branch,


Uni-furcation of assessment and instruction has recently been realized in the form of purposeful assessment scenarios; Assessment x̄ Scenarios (analogous to Noam Chomsky's x̄ Theory!). x̄ here refers to any of the triple assessment scenarios including Assessment for Learning (AFL), Assessment as Learning (AAL), and Assessment of Learning (AOL), plus pairing each with another or integrating all three (i.e., Integrated Assessment Scenario). Comparative investigation of the effect of each scenario as to developing language skills particularly listening skill seems to be an intact area. In a bid to fill this gap, 100 conveniently sampled Iranian female EFL learners of 13-19 years old were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group. Prior to the treatment, their listening ability was measured through a pre-test. Then, each experimental group; AFL, AAL, and Integrated assessment, experienced the listening instruction based on the principles of each specific scenario, while the control group was treated based on AOL principles. Their listening ability was then measured in the light of an identical listening post-test to the pre-test. ANOVA, used to check the comparative performances of all groups, showed that AFL and AAL groups significantly outperformed over the AOL group, but the integrated assessment group significantly outperformed the other experimental groups. While the findings yield support to the bifurcation approach, they generate more prospective areas for further research.