On the Development and Validation of a Scale of Test Impact on Test Takers (TITT)

Document Type : Original Research Article


English Department, Ilam University, Iran.


Test impact, widely recognized as the influence of testing on learning and teaching, affects a set of stakeholders including test takers. This study defines the construct of test impact on test takers and describes the construction and validation of the scale of test impact on test takers (TITT). 410 participants having passed a language test in University Entrance Examination (UEE) were asked to answer the questionnaire containing 64 items. Exploratory factor analysis was applied in the study and yielded evidence for the expected five factor structure of the TITT scale, including the components of test results, test awareness, test experience, test importance, and test sociocognitive effects. The final TITT Scale and its subscales consisting of 56 items demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency and expected levels of stability of the responses across time. Cronbach’s alpha was .93 for the global TITT scale and between .78 and .88 for the five subscales. Implications are discussed and suggestions are provided for possible utilization and improvement of the scale, and future validity testing.